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HomeUS Coins1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left Half Cent : A Collector's Guide

1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left Half Cent : A Collector’s Guide

1793 Flowing Hair Half Cent. This example is one of the finest known.
1793 Flowing Hair Half Cent. This example is one of the finest known.

By Charles Morgan and Hubert Walker for CoinWeek Notes …..
 

Why Is the 1793 Half Cent Important?

The Flowing Hair, Cap Left half cent was the first design of the U.S. half cent denomination. It was a copper coin worth 1/200th of a dollar and issued for use alongside America’s gold and silver coins.

Left: Thomas Jefferson. Right: Alexander Hamilton. Image: Adobe Stock / CoinWeek.
Left: Thomas Jefferson. Right: Alexander Hamilton. Image: Adobe Stock / CoinWeek.

The half cent denomination was conceived of by Thomas Jefferson in 1784, when he was a member of the Congress under the Articles of Confederation. Congress approved coinage legislation in 1785 that included provisions to produce half cents but lacked the means to set up a mint or strike coins.

Under the Constitutional government, Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton also endorsed the denomination, writing:

“Pieces of very small value, are a great accommodation, and the means of a beneficial economy to the poor, by enabling them to purchase, in small portions, and at a more reasonable rate, the necessaries of which they stand in need. If there are only cents, the lowest price for any portion of a vendible commodity, however inconsiderable in quantity, will be a cent; if there are half cents, it will be a half cent, and, in a great number of cases, exactly the same things will be sold for a half cent, which, if there were none, would cost a cent. But a half cent is low enough for the minimum of price. Excessive minuteness would defeat its object. To enable the poorer classes to procure necessaries cheap, is to enable them, with more comfort to themselves, to labor for less; the advantages of which need no comment.”

The Coinage Act of April 2, 1792, authorized the issue of half cents. This legislation established that the half cent would be a copper coin weighing 132 grains (8.55 grams). Given the rising cost of copper, Congress voted to lower the denomination’s weight before coinage commenced in 1793. The Act of January 14, 1793, set the half cent’s new weight standard to 104 grains (6.74 grams).

Ronald P. Manley’s The Half Cent Die State Book, 1797-1857. Image: Kolbe & Fanning.
Ronald P. Manley’s The Half Cent Die State Book, 1797-1857. Image: Kolbe & Fanning.

Despite this legislation, however, half cents struck in 1793 vary in weight. According to Dr. Ronald P. Manley’s book The Half Cent Die State Book: 1793-1857 (1998), a survey of 1793 half cents he examined averaged 102 grains and ranged between 95 and 111 grains. The average diameter of the half cent was 22mm.

1793 was an important year for the fledgling U.S. Mint, but it was not without hiccups. Bond issues with the Mint’s staff precluded the possibility of striking silver and gold coins, leaving only cents and half cents for the Mint’s first year of operations.

In the informative Encyclopedia of United States Half Cents: 1793-1857, Breen wrote that the Philadelphia Mint prepared two obverse and three reverse dies for this issue between April and July 1793.

It is uncertain who prepared the design and the dies for these first half cents.

Numismatist Walter Breen, in his Encyclopedia of United States Half Cents: 1793-1857 (1983), postulated that the designer may have been Mint Director David Rittenhouse. According to Breen’s theory, Rittenhouse may have prepared sketches that were then engraved by Henry Voigt, who is widely acknowledged as the coin’s engraver.

Half Cent expert William Eckberg, in his book The Half Cent, 1793-1857: The Story of America’s Greatest Little Coin, matches the figure of Liberty with Voigt’s 1792 half disme design.

Regardless, the design was inspired by Augustin Dupré’s Libertas Americana medal, struck in Paris at the behest of American Founding Father Benjamin Franklin.

Legal Tender Status

At the time, half and large cents were not fully legal tender issues, a status reserved for silver and gold coins first produced in the following year. Section 16 of the Mint Act of April 2, 1792, specifically stated:

“That all the gold and silver coins which shall have been struck at, and issued from the said mint, shall be a lawful tender in all payments whatsoever, those of full weight according to the respective values herein before declared, and those of less than full weight at values proportional to their respective weights.”

1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left Half Cent Production History

Two obverse and three reverse dies were used to strike 1793 half cents.

The Mint used sheet copper to prepare 30,000 planchets with edge lettering by the middle of May. Coinage began on July 19, and 7,000 pieces were delivered by the next day. 24,934 additional pieces were struck between the 23rd and 25th and delivered on July 26.

The final 1793 half cents were produced on September 17, when Mint workers struck coins with the remaining planchets before closing down shop due to the outbreak of yellow fever that took the life of engraver Joseph Wright just a week before. It was Wright’s death that prompted a design change for 1794, and when the Mint resumed operations on November 23, 1793, newly appointed engraver Robert Scot went to work preparing dies for a new design: the Liberty Cap half cent of 1794.

The published mintage for the issue is 35,334, citing deliveries starting in July and ending on September 18, 1793. Half cent expert Bill Eckberg disputes this figure, however, citing Mint Treasurer Tristram Dalton’s receipt book, which states that the 3,400 pieces delivered on September 18 were one-cent coins. Removing these 3,400 coins from the mintage leaves 31,934 half cents for the year.

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Market Data and Noteworthy Specimens

Note: PCGS reports one example in MS63RB.

1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left Half Cent, Cohen 1

1793 Liberty Cap Half Cent, C-1. Image: Heritage Auctions (visit www.ha.com).
1793 Liberty Cap Half Cent, C-1. Image: Heritage Auctions (visit www.ha.com).

Breen-1. Eckberg 1-A. Rarity-3. However, this variety is the least frequently encountered in Mint State. Obverse 1 features a swooping bust line on Liberty. L and I are spread apart. Liberty’s forelock is between I and B. There is a Wide gap between Y and Liberty’s cap. The reverse features an ornate wreath with HALF CENT being weakly struck. Notice the berry placement. Denomination at a slight rightward incline. Dot to the right of the ribbon. Considered by most specialists to be the first 1793 half cent struck. Eckberg suggests that this variety was struck on July 19 and delivered the next day. If that is correct, then the mintage of this variety is 7,000 pieces.

  • PCGS MS65BN #27392064: Frederick Reed Alvord, November 1, 1923; “The Alvord Estate Collection,” S.H. Chapman June 9, 1924, Lot 8 – $68.00; Henry Chapman; Howard Rounds Newcomb, 1935; Newcomb Collection sold en bloc, B. Max Mehl, 1935; Mehl sold the Newcomb Collection to Colonel “E. H. R.” Green,  June 8, 1936; The Green Estate; sold April 1943 to Burdette G. Johnson and Eric P. Newman for $30.01; Burdette G. Johnson, February 2, 1947; Burdette G. Johnson Estate, December 15, 1948; “The Charles J. DuPont-Anderson Dupont Sale, Part II”, Stack’s November 11, 1954, Lot 1029 – $675; Harold Shaw Bareford, April 10, 1978; William J. Bareford, June 8, 1984; R. Tettenhorst; Missouri Cabinet; Goldberg Auctioneers, January 2014, Lot 1 – $379,500. Pedigree research assisted by Goldberg Auctioneers.
  • PCGS MS64BN #30451153: Knightsbridge Coins (London), July 1984; “The James R. McGuigan Half Cent Collection,” Heritage Auctions, August 22, 2022, Lot 3015 – $111,000.
The Tettenhorst-McGuigan example 1793 half cent, C-1, lot listing from Stack's Auction '85 sale.
The Tettenhorst-McGuigan example 1793 half cent, C-1, lot listing from Stack’s Auction ’85 sale.
  • PCGS MS62BN #30451152: As “Mint State-60+”. Stack’s, August 1985, Lot 1503; R. Tettenhorst; As PCGS MS62BN #30451152. “The James R. McGuigan Half Cent Collection”, Heritage Auctions, August 22, 2022, Lot 3167 – $66,000.
  • PCGS MS62BN: “The John J. Ford, Jr. Collection, XVII,” Stack’s, March 20, 2007, Lot 112 – $74,750. Cinnamon-colored, with an aubergine center on the reverse. Diagonal hit across the cheek. Wholesome piece.

1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left Half Cent, Cohen 2

1793 Liberty Cap Half Cent, C-2. Image: Heritage Auctions.
1793 Liberty Cap Half Cent, C-2. Image: Heritage Auctions.

R-3. Obverse of Cohen-1. Reverse also used on Cohen-3. Obverse: Reverse: The cap is far from the Y of LIBERTY. Same reverse as Cohen-2. Fifteen leaves on each branch of the wreath. A large center dot between HALF and CENT. 2 in the denominator nearly touches the ribbon and is close to the fraction bar (also, the gap is wider than the 00). 1 is centered over the middle 2. Second A in AMERICA nearly touches the branch stem. Die rust is apparent on the obverse and reverse. Eckberg believes this variety was struck on July 23, 1793, and delivered with the C-3 and C-4 varieties on July 26. Approximately 20 to 25 or fewer are known in Mint State—approximately 250 to 325 survivors in all grades.

The Kelly-Streiner example 1793 half cent, C-2, lot listing from Superior's Auction '80 sale.
The Kelly-Streiner example 1793 half cent, C-2, lot listing from Superior’s Auction ’80 sale.
  • PCGS MS65BN CAC #30451154: James Kelly; Leon Bookman; Dr. James McCleery; Eric Streiner; Superior Galleries, August 1990, Lot 1002; Jerry Treglia, August 1991; Heritage Auctions, August 22, 2022, Lot 3016 – $336,000.
  • PCGS MS63BN #29838357: “The George H. Earle, Jr. Collection,” Henry Chapman, June 25, 1912, Lot 3599; Hillyer Cooper Ryder; The Hillier Cooper Ryder Estate; Sold to Wayte Raymond; New Netherlands Coin Company, June 23, 1954, Lot 259; Philip M. Showers; Stack’s to Willis Harrington DuPont via private treaty, 1969; Fred S. Werner, February 1976; Superior Stamp & Coin Company, February 1976; Joe Flynn & Son Rare coins, April 20, 1976; R. Tettenhorst; Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society; “The Missouri Cabinet,” Goldberg Auctioneers, January 2015, Lot 79 – $114,562.50. This coin was tucked away in a book and discovered after Goldberg’s historic Missouri Cabinet sale.
  • PCGS MS62BN #27392065: Joseph S. Brobston; Stack’s Fixed Price List No. 69, January 1963, listed at $1,600; unknown intermediaries; Bowers & Merena March 10, 2005, Lot 29; Denis W. Loring, April 10, 2008; R. Tettenhorst; Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society; Missouri Cabinet; “The Missouri Cabinet,” Goldberg Auctioneers, January 2014, Lot 3 – $63,250.
  • NGC MS62BN #1702687-001: “The Larry H. Miller Collection, Part Two,” Stack’s Bowers, December 17, 2020, Lot 1002 – $45,600. Dark chocolate color. Rim ding at 12 o’clock. Thin diagonal scratch across the cheek. Tiny hit on the upper cheek and another one on Liberty’s chin.
  • NGC MS61BN #5747071-003: Michael Kirzner, October 25, 1971; “The Donald G. Partrick Collection”, Heritage Auctions, April 23, 2021, Lot 3591 – $66,000. Pedigree research assisted by Heritage Auctions.
  • PCGS MS61BN CAC #18524167: “The Richard Picker Collection,” Lester Merkin, September 1968, Lot 27; As PCGS MS61BN #13648993. “The Madison Collection”, Heritage Auctions, January 8, 2009, Lot 3567 – $126,500. As PCGS MS61BN CAC #18524167. Heritage Auctions, April 28, 2011, Lot 5009 – $117,875. Regraded. CAC added.

1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left Half Cent, Cohen 3, Straight Cap, Hooked Bust Line

1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left half cent from the Pogue Collection. Image: Stack's Bowers.
1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left half cent from the Pogue Collection. Image: Stack’s Bowers.

Rarity-3. (PCGS MS66BN, pop ?, 3/2020).

The “Straight Cap” or “Hooked Bust Line” variety. The latter name was given to the variety by Roger S. Cohen, Jr. Date is short. L is partially in front of Liberty’s hair. The Pole is close to the bust.

The obverse is also used in Cohen-4 die marriage. Short 7 in the date. L low above the hair. Reverse: Same reverse as Cohen-2. Fifteen leaves on each branch of the wreath. A large center dot between HALF and CENT. 2 in the denominator nearly touches the ribbon and is close to the fraction bar (also, the gap is wider than the 00). Second A in AMERICA nearly touches the branch stem. Die rust is apparent below TES in STATES. Edge: TWO HUNDRED FOR A DOLLAR, followed by two leaves.

  • PCGS MS66BN CAC #30451155: T. James Clarke; Charles M. Williams, “The Charles M. Williams Collection,” Numismatic Gallery, November 1950, Lot 669; Harold Bareford; William J. Bareford; Jules Reiver, June 1984; James R. McGuigan, “The James R. McGuigan Half Cent Collection,” Heritage Auctions, August 22, 2022, Lot 3017 – $1,005,000.
  • PCGS MS65BN CAC #32157242: Charles Morris Collection; “The Charles Morris Collection”, S.H. and H. Chapman, April 1905, Lot 857 – $28; Allison W. Jackman Collection; Allison W. Jackman Estate, October 1917; “Allison W. Jackman Collection”, Henry Chapman, June 1918, Lot 851 – $52; Virgil M. Brand; Horace and Armin Brand, by descent, June 1926; Armin Brand, by division, circa 1931-32; Burdette G. Johnson, by consignment, August 1935; unknown collection, by sale, January 1942; unknown intermediaries; Douglas W. Weaver to Hank Rodgers by sale, January 12, 1972; R. Tettenhorst, by sale, March 27, 1972; R. Tettenhorst to the Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society by gift; Missouri Cabinet Collection; “Missouri Cabinet Collection of U.S. Half Cents,” Ira and Larry Goldberg Auctioneers, January 2014, Lot 4 – $718,750, via Larry Hanks and Richard Burdick, to D. Brent Pogue Family Coin Collection; As PCGS MS65BN #32157242. “The D. Brent Pogue Family Collection, Part III”, Stack’s Bowers, February 9, 2016, Lot 3001, $446,500. Pogue novelty insert. As PCGS MS65BN CAC #32157242. “The Oliver Jung Collection”, Heritage Auctions, January 21, 2021, Lot 3976 – $384,000. Recertified. Novelty insert removed. Missouri-Pogue on insert. CAC added. Red in protected areas, tiny planchet defect between borders the denticles behind the cap, tiny rim nick at 11 o’clock. Pedigree research assisted by Stack’s Bowers / Heritage Auctions.
  • PCGS MS65BN #50116356: Heritage Auctions, January 4, 2018, Lot 4728 – $240,000.
  • NGC MS64+BN CAC #5747071-004: “The Donald G. Partrick Collection,” Heritage Auctions, April 23, 2021, Lot 3592 – $192,000; Heritage Auctions, November 2, 2022, Lot 3040 – $180,000.
  • PCGS MS64+BN CAC #44161263: “The Charles Morris Collection,” S.H. & H Chapman, April 19, 1905; Lot 857 – $28; Allison W. Jackman, October 1917; “The Jackman Estate Collection,” Howard R, Newcomb, June 28, 1918, Lot 851 – $52; Virgil Brand; unknown intermediaries; Howard R. Newcomb, 1935; sold privately; B. Max Mehl, 1935; Sold privately to Colonel E.H.R. Green, June 8, 1936; Green Estate, April 1943; Green Estate to Eric P. Newman and Burdette G. Johnson, $60.01; Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Society; “Missouri Cabinet,” Goldberg Auctioneers, January 2014, Lot 5 – $345,000; Heritage Auctions, January 13, 2022, Lot 3741 – $216,000. Simpson novelty insert. Missouri Cabinet-Simpson on insert. Pedigree research assisted by Goldberg Auctioneers / Heritage Auctions.
  • PCGS MS64BN #25338679: “The John Pawling Collection,” New Netherlands, November 1952, Lot 73; “The Joseph Brobston Collection,” Stack’s, January 1963; “The Charles Jay Collection,” Stack’s, October 1967, Lot 80; “The Collection of Oliver Jung,” Heritage Auctions, August 7, 2014, Lot 5514 – $146,875; Heritage Auctions, April 28, 2016, Lot 4521 – $108,687.50; “The Warshaw Family Collection, Part II,” Heritage Auctions, June 4, 2020, Lot 3005 – $84,000.
  • PCGS MS64BN #32157241: “A.O. Woods Collection,” September 1986, Lot 3007; R.E. “Ted” Naftzger, Jr. Collection, by sale, via Anthony Terranova; Naftzger Collection sold en bloc to Eric Streiner, 1991; Stack’s, January 1992, Lot 278; Gene Reale, by sale, via Jay Parrino; Richard T. Coleman, Jr., by sale, August 1995; As NGC MS64BN #957212-001. Claude E. Davis, via Richard Burdick, December 1997; Davis’ “Foxfire Collection” sold en bloc to D. Brent Pogue Family, October 5, 2004; As PCGS MS64BN #32157241. “The D. Brent Pogue Family Collection, Part III,” Stack’s Bowers / Sotheby’s, February 9, 2016, Lot 3002 – $176,250. Chocolate glossy surfaces, minor planchet defect on Liberty’s brow.
  • PCGS MS63BN #6591333: “The Louis E. Eliasberg, Sr. Collection”, Bowers and Merena, May 1996, Lot 394; “The ESM Collection”, Stack’s Bowers, March 19, 2020, Lot 3001 – $84,000. Dark discoloration in the back of Liberty’s hair, running up to the right of the cap, to the beads. Scattered dark areas on the reverse. 
  • PCGS MS63BN #06604083: Stack’s, January 2007, Lot 5427; Heritage Auctions, June 23, 2014, Lot 30003 – $95,175.
The Leo A. Young example 1793 half cent lot listing from Rarcoa's Auction '80 sale.
The Leo A. Young example 1793 half cent lot listing from Rarcoa’s Auction ’80 sale.
  • PCGS MS62BN #15040710: ANA Auction, Leo A. Young, August 1959, Lot 402; Kagin’s; Leo A. Young; As “Choice Uncirculated.” Rarcoa, August 1980, Lot 1512; As NGC MS61BN #671578-001. Heritage Auctions, February 2002, Lot 5018 – $25,300; “The Chief Paduke Collection,” Heritage Auctions, August 2006, Lot 5017 – $63,250; As PCGS MS62BN #15040710. Heritage Auctions, April 25, 2013, Lot 4110 – $70,500. Crossed to PCGS, upgraded one point; “The Jim O’Neal Collection of U.S. Type, Part I”, Heritage Auctions, April 2014, Lot 5498 – $58,750; Heritage Auctions, November 1, 2016, Lot 5111 – $47,000; D.L. Hansen; David Lawrence Rare Coins, December 2018, Lot 1000 – $53,900. Reholdered. Hansen novelty insert; “The Cardinal Collection Educational Foundation”; As PCGS MS62 #15040710. Stack’s Bowers, August 25, 2022, Lot 7008 – $55,200; Heritage Auctions, February 9, 2023, Lot 3687 – $66,000.
  • NGC MS60BN: Stack’s January 12, 2009, Lot 8002 – Passed; Stack’s, July 30, 2009, Lot 61 – $47,725; Stack’s May 21, 2010, Lot 4003 – $46,000; Stack’s, August 13, 2011, Lot 7210 – $40,250. Dark orange/brown color with “marbleized” planchet (read: many flan cracks). 
  • “MS60”: Richard Picker, via private treaty; Stack’s, March 7, 2006, Lot 3502 – $60,375. Two hits on neck, one diagonal near throat, the other a gouge near hair. Tiny tick to the left of the neck. On the reverse a small gouge above E in STATES. dark area around the top of RICA.

1793 Liberty Cap, Head Facing Left Half Cent, Cohen 4, Straight Cap, Hooked Bust Line, Thin Leaves

1793 Liberty Cap Half Cent, C-4. Image: Heritage Auctions.
1793 Liberty Cap Half Cent, C-4. Image: Heritage Auctions.

Breen-4. Rarity-3. The most frequently seen of the 1793 varieties. Same obverse die as Cohen-3. “Hooked Bust Line” variety. The name given to the variety by Roger S. Cohen, Jr. 7 is short. Liberty’s forelock is positioned between L I.  Cap is close to Y. Reverse features recut E in UNITED and ER in AMERICA. The AT and ES in STATES are widely spaced. Berries are more delicate and nearly wrap around the bottom of CENT. Beads on the top of the left branch do not aggressively point to the right. The ribbon ends that are split for at least half their length. Eckberg believes this variety was struck on July 25 and delivered on July 26, along with examples from other die pairs.

  • PCGS MS66BN: “The George H. Earle, Jr. Collection,” Henry Chapman June 25, 1912, Lot 3598 – $35; “The Clarence S. Bement Collection,” Henry Chapman May 29, 1916 – Lot 413 -$35; S. H. Chapman; “The Dr. Christian A. Allenburger Collection,” B. Max Mehl March 23, 1948, Lot 311; Philip M. Showers; Stack’s, 1969; Willis Harrington DuPont; Fred S. “Freddy” Werner 2/1976-Superior Stamp and Coin Company, Inc., 2/1976-Joe Flynn and Son Rare Coins, Inc., April 20, 1976; R. Tettenhorst; Eric P. Newman Educational Foundation; Missouri Cabinet; “The Missouri Cabinet,” Goldberg Auctioneers, January 2014, Lot 6 – $920,000.
  • PCGS MS65BN #30451156: “The Lorin G. Parmelee,” New York Coin & Stamp Company, June 1890, Lot 678; “The E.W. Ropes Collection,” New York Coin & Stamp Company, December 1893, Lot 419; Listed by Stack’s in January 1963 Fixed Price List; purchased by Joseph Brobston; Eugene H. Gardner; “The Eugene H. Gardner Collection”, Stack’s, February 1965, Lot 1109; J.L. Browning; “The Raymond Benson Collection”, Stack’s, October 1990, Lot 1585 (misidentified as Cohen-3); “The James R. McGuigan Half Cent Collection,” Heritage Auctions, August 22, 2022, Lot 3018 – $252,000. Pedigree research assisted by Heritage Auctions.
  • PCGS MS64BN #50103013: Heritage Auctions, January 12, 2005, Lot 30088 – $120,750; “The Joseph C. Thomas Collection, Part Two,” Heritage Auctions, April 30, 2009, Lot 2016 – $109,250.
  • PCGS MS64BN: “The Allison Park Collection,” American Numismatic Rarities, August 15, 2004, Lot 19 – Passed. Dark spot on the rim at 3 o’clock. Small dark spot on the left field. Small depression to the left of Liberty’s nose. Slightly off-center strike. on the reverse, dark spot between 8 and 9 o’clock.
  • NGC MS63BN: “The Bernard Turkus Collection”, Superior Galleries, June 1981, Lot 1; “The Reed Hawn Collection”, Stack’s, October 1993, Lot 1;  “The Haig A. Koshkarian Collection”, Stack’s, March 9, 2004, Lot 1 – $50,600. Curved serrated scratch along the lower right side of the obverse. Dark spot to the immediate left of L of LIBERTY.
  • NGC MS62BN #5747071-005: Gilbert; Thomas Elder; “The Alto II Collection”, Stack’s, October 1991, Lot 502; Jon Hanson; “The Donald G. Partrick Collection”, Heritage Auctions, April 23, 2021, Lot 3593 – $50,400. Donald G. Partrick Collection on insert. Pedigree research assisted by Heritage Auctions.

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Further 1793 Flowing Hair Half Cent Coverage on CoinWeek

  • Collecting a Half Cent Type Set with Bull Eckberg

 

Half Cent expert and author Bill Eckberg spoke at the 2019 EAC Happening in Dayton, Ohio, where he gave an overview of how to assemble a Half Cent Type Set. What coins are necessary for a Half Cent Type Set? That depends on the individual, Bill says.

Coin Specifications

Country: United States of America
Year of Issue: 1793
Denomination: Half Cent (USD)
Mintmark: None (Philadelphia)
Mintage: 31,934
Alloy: Copper
Weight: 6.74 g
Diameter: 22.00 mm
Edge: Lettered: TWO HUNDRED FOR A DOLLAR
OBV Designer: Engraved by Henry Voigt
REV Designer: Engraved by Henry Voigt
Quality: Business Strike

 

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CoinWeek Notes
CoinWeek Notes
CoinWeek Notes presents expert analysis and insights from Charles Morgan and Hubert Walker, the award-winning editors of CoinWeek.com.

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