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US Gold Coins – What Are the Three Rarest Carson City Half Eagles?

By Doug WinterRareGoldCoins.com ……
Of the three denominations of gold coins struck at the Carson City Mint, perhaps the most popular to collect by date are the half eagles. Of the 19 issues produced between 1870 and 1893, all are obtainable in reasonably high grades. But some of these are rarer than most collectors realize, and the Big Three are extremely challenging to obtain in higher grades. What are the three rarest Carson City half eagles and how do they compare in overall and high grade rarity?

The Three Rarest Carson City Half Eagles

Date Original Mintage/Total Known Total Known in High Grades
1870-CC 7,675/70-80 <10; 2-3 in Uncirculated
1873-CC 7,416/65-75 6-8; 2 in Uncirculated
1878-CC 9,054/85-95 12-15; 1 Uncirculated

Note how all three of these dates fit in a neat order as far as total known based on their original mintage figure. Generally speaking, a first-year-of-issue (the 1870-CC) will have a higher survival rate than other dates due to a number being saved as souvenirs, but this doesn’t appear to be the case with any of the 1870-CC gold denominations. All three of these rare half eagles have a survival rate of around 1%. Note as well that the figures given above for “total known” are based on my personal observations.

Now, let’s look at the three dates according to current (5/16) PCGS population figures:

Numbers graded at PCGS

VF and Below EF AU Mint State
1870-CC 47 19 12 1 79
1873-CC 55 17 7 2 81
1878-CC 35 15 22 0 72

These numbers are interesting as they show fewer graded for the 1878-CC than for the other two (and in my opinion rarer) dates. What gives?

First off, I think the number graded for all three dates is way inflated by resubmissions, especially for the 1870-CC in About Uncirculated and for the 1878-CC in About Uncirculated. In the last five years of specializing in rare date gold (and handling more of it than nearly any other dealer), I’ve owned just two 1870-CC half eagles in AU and above and exactly ZERO higher grade 1878-CC half eagles. My gut tells me that the figure of “22” AU 1878-CC half eagles graded by PCGS is particularly inflated.

Second, the answer to our original question turns out to have two parts: which of the three dates is the rarest overall and which is the rarest in high grades.

Third—and this is kind of a random observation—I find it interesting how all three of these dates show around 50% (or more) of the total number graded in VF and below. It is fascinating to note how the early date CC half eagles (especially those dated 1870 through 1875) were used extensively in circulation; a reflection of the economy in the western states versus the east coast or the southern states, where gold coins saw less extensive circulation due to the early acceptance of paper money in commercial transactions.

Let’s look at all three dates on an individual basis.


1870-CC $5.00 PCGS G6


This date has long been regarded as the rarest CC half eagle and it is still clearly the most avidly sought. It is the only one of the three rarest half eagles from this mint with multiple levels of demand and it is typically seen well-worn with nearly 60% of the “grading events” at PCGS occurring in the AG-VF range. There are fewer than a dozen known in higher grades (AU and Uncirculated) with nearly all of these off the market in tightly-held collections..

I regard the 1870-CC as the second rarest of the Big Three both in terms of overall and high grade rarity.


1873-CC $5.00 PCGS AU50


The PCGS population for this date is actually a bit higher than it is for the 1873-CC and 1878-CC but I regard it as the single rarest Carson City half eagle, both in terms of overall and high grade rarity. A remarkable 67.90% of the “grading events” for this date have occurred in the AG-VF range and while I think this figure is high, it is clear to me that over one-half of the surviving 1873-CC half eagles are, in fact, in very low grades. This is easily the rarest of the Big Three in high grades and fewer than 10 exist in high grades including two in Uncirculated (a PCGS MS61 and an MS62, both of which I have owned at one time). Not only is this date found well-worn, but higher grade examples are apt to show noticeable weakness of strike. I can count on one hand the number of 1873-CC half eagles in EF and above that I would regard as being net positive eye appeal.


1878-CC $5.00 PCGS AU58


This date is the most enigmatic and the least understood of the Big Three. It is not generally seen in ultra-low grades (Good through Fine) and part of this is explained by the introduction of the Morgan Dollar in 1878 which made smaller denomination gold redundant in Western commerce. I regard the 1878-CC to be less rare than the 1870-CC and 1873-CC half eagles in terms of overall rarity, but it is very close to the 1870-CC in terms of high grade rarity. That pesky figure of “22” AU’s at PCGS notwithstanding, I doubt if more than a dozen properly graded AU and higher 1878-CC half eagles exist. I have seen pieces in AU50 and AU53 holders which were clearly gradeflated and at least a few of the “10” graded AU55 and AU58—combined—by PCGS are, in my opinion, cleaned and processed coins which are (ahem) problematical.

As recently as a decade ago, the price of this date trailed other rare CC half eagles such as the 1872-CC and 1876-CC, but the 1878-CC is really rare, especially in properly graded AU55 and above.

Doug Winter Numismatics, specialists in U.S. gold coins

* * *

About Doug Winter

Doug_Winter2Doug has spent much of his life in the field of numismatics; beginning collecting coins at the age of seven, and by the time he was ten years old, buying and selling coins at conventions in the New York City area.

In 1989, he founded Douglas Winter Numismatics, and his firm specializes in buying and selling choice and rare United States coins, especially US gold coins and all branch mint material.

Recognized as one of the leading specialized numismatic firms, Doug is an award winning author of over a dozen numismatic books and the recognized expert on US Gold. His knowledge and exceptional eye for properly graded and original coins has made him one of the most respected figures in the numismatic community and a sought after dealer by collectors and investors looking for professional personalized service, a select inventory of impeccable quality and fair and honest pricing. Doug is also a major buyer of all US coins and is always looking to purchase collections both large and small. He can be reached at 214-675-9897.

Doug has been a contributor to the Guidebook of United States Coins (also known as the “Redbook”) since 1983, Walter Breen’s Encyclopedia of United States and Colonial Coins, Q. David Bowers’ Encyclopedia of United States Silver Dollars and Andrew Pollock’s United States Pattern and Related Issues

In addition he has authored 13 books on US Gold coins including:

  • Gold Coins of the New Orleans Mint: 1839-1909
  • Gold Coins of the Carson City Mint: 1870 – 1893
  • Gold Coins of the Charlotte Mint: 1838-1861
  • Gold Coins of the Dahlonega Mint 1838-1861
  • The United States $3 Gold Pieces 1854-1889
  • Carson City Gold Coinage 1870-1893: A Rarity and Condition Census Update
  • An Insider’s Guide to Collecting Type One Double Eagles
  • The Connoisseur’s Guide to United States Gold Coins
  • A Collector’s Guide To Indian Head Quarter Eagles
  • The Acadiana Collection of New Orleans Coinage
  • Type Three Double Eagles, 1877-1907: A Numismatic History and Analysis
  • Gold Coins of the Dahlonega Mint, 1838-1861: A Numismatic History and Analysis
  • Type Two Double Eagles, 1866-1876: A Numismatic History and Analysis

Finally Doug is a member of virtually every major numismatic organization, professional trade group and major coin association in the US.

If you are interested in buying or selling classic US coins or if you would like to have the world’s leading expert work with you assembling a set of coins? Contact Doug Winter at (214) 675-9897 or by email at [email protected].

Doug Winter
Doug Winterhttps://www.raregoldcoins.com
Doug Winter founded Douglas Winter Numismatics (DWN) in 1985. The nationally renowned firm specializes in buying and selling rare United States gold coins. He has written over a dozen books, including the standard references on Charlotte, Dahlonega, and New Orleans gold coinage, and Type 1 Liberty Head Double Eagles. Douglas has also contributed to the A Guidebook of United States Coins, Walter Breen’s Encyclopedia of United States and Colonial Coins, Q. David Bowers’ Encyclopedia of United States Silver Dollars, and Andrew Pollock’s United States Pattern and Related Issues. He is a member of the PNG, the ANA, the ANS, the NLG, CAC, PCGS, and NGC - among other professional affiliations. Contact Doug Winter at [email protected].

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